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Prof. Charles Melville

Prof. Charles Melville

Professor of Persian History

Fellow of Pembroke College

Chairman of the Faculty Board


Biography:

Born London on 10 May 1951, educated at Wellington College and Pembroke College, Cambridge (1969-72), BA Hons. (1st) in Oriental Studies (Arabic & Persian); University R.A. Nicholson Prize, Pembroke College E.G. Browne Prize (1972).  MA (Islamic History), London SOAS (1972-3). PhD, Cambridge, on “The historical seismicity of Iran from the 7th to the 17th century” (1978).  Research Assistant, Imperial College, London (1974-82); seismic hazard research consultant, CEGB-Nuclear Electric, etc. (1982-86); Assistant Lecturer in Oriental Studies, Cambridge (1984-8); University Lecturer (1988-2001); Reader (2001-8); Professor of Persian History (2008-present). Fellow of Pembroke College (1985-present).

He has been a long-serving member of the Governing Council of the British Institute of Persian Studies and chairman of the Research Committee, and is currently Vice-President. He has also served on the Board of the Societas Iranologica Europaea (1995-2003). Since 1999, he has been Director of the Shahnama Project, and since 2006 he has been President of The Islamic Manuscript Association (TIMA), both based in Cambridge. In 2010 he was behind an exhibition of Persian manuscripts and paintings of the Shahnama (Persian Book of Kings) at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. He has travelled widely in Central Asia and Iran (both before and after the Islamic Revolution).

Subject groups/Research projects

Arabic & Persian Studies:

Research Interests

Professor Melville’s main research interests are in the history and historiography of medieval Iran, with a concentration on the Mongol–Safavid periods (13th-17th centuries), and text-image studies of Persian manuscripts, particularly the Shahnama of Firdausi and the illustration of history in Persian chronicles.

Recent publications include edited volumes of Safavid Persia (1996), Shahnama Studies (2006) and Shahnama Studies II (2012), and ‘Millennium of the Shahnama of Firdausi’ (Iranian Studies, 2010, with Firuza Abdullaeva). Co-authored books include The Persian Book of Kings. Ibrahim Sultan’s Shahnama (2008, also with Firuza Abdullaeva) and Epic of the Kings. The art of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh (2010, with Barbara Brend). Edited volumes on Persian Historiography (vol. X of the History of Persian Literature) and Kingship from Antiquity to the Medieval World ('Every Inch a King', with Lynette Mitchell) were published in 2012.

A Chronicle of the reign of Shah ‘Abbas. Fazli Beg Khuzani Isfahani, was published in 2015, with Kioumars Ghereghlou.

Key Publications

Books & monographs

(Joint ed.) Every Inch a King: Comparative studies on kings and kingship in the ancient and medieval worlds, Leiden 2012 [with L. Mitchell] (link to PDF attached)

 

(ed.) Persian Historiography. A History of Persian Literature X, London 2012.

 

“The Keshig in Iran: the survival of the royal Mongol Household, in Linda Komaroff (ed.), Beyond the Legacy of Genghis Khan, Leiden 2006, pp. 135-64.

 

A History of Persian earthquakes, Cambridge 1982 [with N.N. Ambraseys]; reissued in paperback, 2005; pp. 219.

 

See more here (link to PDF)

1. A History of Persian Earthquakes, Cambridge 1982 [with N.N. Ambraseys]; reissued in paperback, 2005; pp. 219 (Persian translation published in Tehran 1991)

2. Christians and Moors in Spain, III, Warminster 1992 [with Ahmad Ubaydli], pp. 202

3. The seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea: a historical review, Cambridge 1994 [with N.N. Ambraseys and R.D. Adams]; reissued as paperback, 2005; pp. 181

4. The fall of Amir Chupan and the decline of the Ilkhanate, 1327-37: A decade of discord in late Mongol Iran. Papers on Inner Asia, no. 30. Bloomington, Indiana 1999, pp. 90

5. The Persian Book of Kings. Ibrahim Sultan’s Shahnama, Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2008 [with F. Abdullaeva], pp. 142

6. Epic of the Persian Kings. The art of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, London 2010 [with Barbara Brend], pp. 270

(b) Edited books and journals

1. Editor: Persian and Islamic Studies in Honour of P.W. Avery, Pembroke Papers 1, Cambridge 1990

2. Editor: Safavid Persia, Pembroke Papers 4, Cambridge 1996

3. Editor: Mediaeval and Modern Persian Studies, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of Iranian Studiesvol. 2, Wiesbaden 1999

4. Joint editor: Cambridge History of Iran, vol. VII: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge 1991 [with P.W. Avery and G.R.G. Hambly]

5. Joint Guest Editor: Persian local histories, Special Issue of Iranian Studies 33/i-ii (2000) [with Jürgen Paul]

6. Joint editor: Images of Persia. Photographs by Laurence Lockhart 1920s-1950s, Cambridge 2002 [with Jim Bamberg]

7. Editor: Shahnama Studies 1, Pembroke Papers 5, Cambridge 2006

8. Joint Guest Editor: Millennium of the Shahnama. Special Issue of Iranian Studies 43/i (2010) [with F. Abdullaeva]

 

Selected papers

1. “The seismicity of Kuhistan, Iran”, Geographical Journal 143/ii (1977), pp. 179 99 [with N.N. Ambraseys]

2. “Earthquakes in the history of Nishapur”, Iran 18 (1980), pp. 103 20 [Persian trans. publ. in Ayandeh 19 (1372/1994), pp. 888-913]

3. “Historical monuments and earthquakes in Tabriz”, Iran 19 (1981), pp. 159 77

4. “Seismicity of Yemen”, Nature 303 (1983), pp. 321 3 [with N.N. Ambraseys]

5. “The 1934 floods in Tabriz, N.W. Iran”, Disasters 7/ii (1983), pp. 107 17 [reprinted in Ekistics 308 (1984), pp. 406-13]

6. “Meteorological hazards and disasters in Iran: a preliminary survey to 1950”, Iran 22 (1984), pp. 113 50

7. “Sismicité historique de la Mer Rouge septentrionale”, in Tremblements de terre: histoire et archéologie, Valbonne (1984), pp. 95 107

8. “An analysis of the eastern Mediterranean earthquake of 20 May 1202”, in W.H.K. Lee, H. Meyers and K. Shimazaki (eds), Historical seismograms and earthquakes of the world, Academic Press: New York 1988, pp. 181 201 [with N. Ambraseys]

9. “The Persian famine of 1870 1872: prices and politics”, Disasters 12/iv (1988), pp. 309 25 [revised reprint as “The Persian famine of 1870 72: prices and politics”, in C. Geissler and D.J. Oddy (eds), Food, diet and economic change past and present, Leicester University Press 1993, pp. 133 50]

10. “Evidence for intraplate earthquakes in northwestern Arabia”, Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer. 79/iv (1989), pp. 1279 81 [with N.N. Ambraseys]

11. “The itineraries of Sultan Öljeitü, 1304 1316”, Iran 28 (1990), pp. 55 70

12. “Padshah i Islam: the conversion of Sultan Mahmud Ghazan Khan”, Pembroke Papers 1 (1990), pp. 159 77

13. “Saladin’s Hattin letter”, in B.Z. Kedar (ed.), The Horns of Hattin, Jerusalem and London 1992, pp. 208 12 [with M.C. Lyons]

14. “The Year of the Elephant: Mamluk Mongol rivalry in the Hejaz in the reign of Abu Sa‘id (1317 1335)”, Studia Iranica 21/ii (1992), pp. 197 214

15. “The Chinese Uighur animal calendar in Persian historiography of the Mongol period”, Iran 32 (1994), pp. 83 98

16. “From Qars to Qandahar: the itineraries of Shah ‘Abbas I (995 1038/1587 1629)”, in J. Calmard (ed.), Etudes Safavides, Tehran Paris 1993 [1995], pp. 195 224

17. “The Barbarians civilized? A look at the acculturation of the Mongols in Iran”, Isfahan University Research Bulletin 6/i ii (March 1995), pp. 28 39

18. “Historical evidence of faulting in Eastern Anatolia and Northern Syria”, Annali di Geofisica 38/iii iv (Sept. Oct. 1995), pp. 337 43 [with N.N. Ambraseys]

19. “The contribution of Arabic sources to the history of mediaeval Iran”, in Sociétés et cultures musulmanes d'hier et aujord'hui, Les chantiers de la recherche, Strasbourg, 30 juin 3 juillet 1994, AFEMAM Lettre d'information no. 10, Paris 1996, pp. 313 17

20. “'Sometimes by the sword, sometimes by the dagger': the role of the Isma‘ilis in Mamluk Mongol relations in the 8th/14th century”, in F. Daftary (ed.), Medieval Isma‘ili history and thought, Cambridge 1996, pp. 247 63

21. “Shah ‘Abbas and the pilgrimage to Mashhad”, in C. Melville (ed.), Safavid Persia. Pembroke Papers 4 (1996), pp. 191 229

22. “Wolf or Shepherd? Amir Chupan’s attitude to government”, in J. Raby and T. Fitzherbert (eds), The Court of the Il khans, 1290 1340, Oxford Studies in Islamic Art 12 (1996), pp. 79 93

23. “Abu Sa‘id and the revolt of the amirs in 1319”, in D. Aigle (ed.), L’Iran face à la domination mongole, Tehran Paris 1997, pp. 89-120

24. “Hamd Allah Mustawfi’s Zafarnamah and the historiography of the late Ilkhanid period”, in K. Eslami (ed.), Iran and Iranian Studies: Essays in honor of Iraj Afshar, Princeton 1998, pp. 1-12.

25. “The Ilkhan Öljeitü's conquest of Gilan (1307): rumour and reality”, in R. Amitai Preiss & D.O. Morgan (eds), The Mongol empire and its legacy, Leiden 1999, pp. 73-125

26. “A lost source for the reign of Shah ‘Abbas: the Afzal al-tawarikh of Fazli Khuzani Isfahani”, Iranian Studies 31/ii (1998) [1999], pp. 263-5

27. “History: from the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu (ca. 1000-1500 C.E.)”, Iranian Studies 31/iii-iv (1998) [2000], pp. 473-82 [review article]

28. “From Adam to Abaqa: Qadi Baidawi’s rearrangement of history (part I)”, Studia Iranica 30/i (2001), pp. 67-86

29. “Persian local histories: views from the wings”, Iranian Studies 33/i-ii (Winter-Spring 2000 [2001]), pp. 7-14

30. “The Caspian provinces: a world apart. Three local histories of Mazandaran”, Iranian Studies 33/i-ii (Winter-Spring 2000 [2001]), pp. 45-91

31. “Laurence Lockhart and Persia”, in J. Bamberg & Ch. Melville (eds), Images of Persia. Photographs by Laurence Lockhart 1920s-1930s, Cambridge 2002, pp. 5-10 [with J. Bamberg]

32. “Historical seismicity and tectonics: the case of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East”, in William H.K. Lee et al. (eds), International handbook of earthquake & engineering seismology, Part A, Amsterdam 2002, pp. 747-63 [with N.N. Ambraseys & J.A. Jackson]

33. “The Mongols in Iran”, in Linda Komaraoff and Stefano Carboni (eds), The legacy of Genghis Khan. Courtly art and culture in Western Asia, 1256-1353, Newhaven and London 2002, pp. 37-61

34. “New light on the reign of Shah ‘Abbas: volume III of the Afdal al-tavarikh”, in A. Newman (ed.), Society and culture in the early modern Middle East: Studies in Iran in the Safavid period, Leiden 2003, pp. 63-96

35. “History and myth: the Persianisation of Ghazan Khan”, in É. Jeremías (ed.), Irano-Turkic cultural contacts in the 11th-17th centuries, Piliscsaba 2003, pp. 133-60

36. “The early Persian historiography of Anatolia”, in Judith Pfeiffer & Sholeh A. Quinn (eds), History and historiography of post-Mongol Central Asia and the Middle East. Studies in honor of John E. Woods, Wiesbaden 2006, pp. 135-66

37. “The Keshig in Iran: the survival of the royal Mongol Household”, in Linda Komaroff (ed.), Beyond the Legacy of Genghis Khan, Leiden 2006, pp. 135-64

38. “Text and image in the story of Bizhan and Manizha, I”, in Ch. Melville (ed.), Shahnama Studies 1, Pembroke Papers 5, Cambridge 2006, pp. 71-96

39. “Ibn Husam’s Hāvarān-nāma and the Šāh-nāma of Firdausī”, in Liber Amicorum. Etudes sur l’Iran medieval et moderne offertes à Jean Calmard, ed. M. Bernardini, M. Haneda and M. Szuppe, Eurasian Studies 5/i-ii (2006), pp. 219-34 [2007]

40. “From Adam to Abaqa: Qadi Baidawi’s rearrangement of history (part II)”, Studia Iranica 36/i (2007), pp. 7-64 [reprinted with Persian trans. together with part I, by Mohammad Reza Tahmasbi, Tehran 2008]

41. “Qadi Baidawi’s Nizam al-tawarikh in the Safina-yi Tabriz: an early witness of the text” in A.A. Seyed-Gohrab & S. McGlinn (eds), A treasury from Tabriz: The great Ilkhanid compendium, Amsterdam 2007, pp. 92-102

42. “From Tabriz to Herat: Persian historiography in the 15th century”, in M. Ritter, R. Kauz & B. Hoffmann (eds), Iran und iranisch geprägte Kulturen: Studien zum 65. Geburtstag von Bert G. Fragner [Iran and Iraniate cultures: Studies for Bert G. Fragner on his 65th birthday], Wiesbaden: Dr Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2008, pp. 28-38

43. “Between Firdausi and Rashid al-Din. Persian verse chronicles of the Mongol period”, Studia Islamica, 104-105 (2007 [2008]), pp. 45-65

44. “Anatolia under the Mongols”, in K. Fleet (ed.), Cambridge History of Turkey, vol. I, Cambridge 2009, pp. 51-101

45. “Shahnama: The Millennium of an Epic Masterpiece”, Iranian Studies 43/i (2010), pp. 1-11 (with F. Abdullaeva)

46. “Genealogy and exemplary rulership in the Tarikh-i Chingiz Khan”, in Y. Suleiman (ed.), Living Islamic History. Studies in honour of Professor Carole Hillenbrand, Edinburgh 2010, pp. 129-50

47. “The ‘Shahnameh’ in historical context”, in Barbara Brend and Charles Melville, Epic of the Persian Kings. The art of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, London 2010, pp. 3-15

48. “Serial killers: the mise-en-page of Firdausi’s ‘Davazdah rukh’”, Persica 23 (2009-10), pp. 73-107

49. “Foreword”, in Manfred Milz (ed.), Painting the Persian Book of Kings today. Ancient text and modern images, Cambridge 2010, pp. 11-20

Encyclopaedia articles

1. “Bologan Katun”, Encyclopaedia Iranica IV/4 (1989), pp. 338 9

2. “Chobanids”, Encyclopaedia Iranica V/4 (1991), pp. 496 502 [with A. Zaryab]

3. “Coban”, Encyclopaedia Iranica V/8 (1992), pp. 875 8

4. “Delsad Katun”, Encyclopaedia Iranica VII/3 (1995), p. 255

5. “Demasq Kvaja”, Encyclopaedia Iranica VII/3 (1995), pp. 256 7

6. “Sarbadarids”, Encyclopaedia of Islam IX/1 (1995), pp. 47 9

7. “Doquz Katun”, Encyclopaedia Iranica VII/5 (1996), pp. 475 6

8. “Ebn Esfandiar”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, VIII/1 (1997), pp. 20 3

9. “Ebn al Fuati”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, VIII/1 (1997), pp. 25 6

10. “Ebn al Teqtaqa”, Encyclopaedia Iranica VIII/1 (1997), pp. 58 9

11. “Abu'l Fadl ‘Allami”, “Bayhaki” and “al Biruni”, in D.R Woolf (ed.), A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, London and New York 1998, pp. 3, 78, 92.

12. “Floods ii. Historical survey”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica X/1 (1999), pp. 42-3

13. “Gazan-nama”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica X/4 (2000), p. 383

14. “Giat al Din Mohammad”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica X/6 (2001), pp. 598-9 [with P. Jackson]

15. “Zalzala”, in Encyclopaedia of Islam XI/185-6 (2002), pp. 428-32

16. “Great Britain x. Iranian Studies in Britain: Islamic period”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica XI/3 (2002), pp. 260-67

17. “Hafez-e Abru”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica XI/5 (2003), pp. 507-9 [with M.E. Subtelny]

18. “Hamd-Allah Mostawfi”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica XI/6 (2003), pp. 631-4

19. “Historiography iv. Mongol period”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica XII/4 (2004), pp. 348-56

20. “Jahangosa-ye Jovayni”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, XIV/4 (2008), pp. 378-82

21. “Jahan Temür”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, XIV/4 (2008), pp. 385-6

22. “Jame‘ al-tawarik”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, XIV/5 (2008), pp. 462-8

23. “Jarči”, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, XIV/6 (2008), pp. 580-81

Other brief essays

1. “Edward Fitzgerald and the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam”, A concert of European and Arabic music. Programme, Cambridge 1990

2. Obituary of John Cooper, Iranian Studies 30/iii-iv (1997), pp.413-15

3. “A unique Persian manuscript”, Christ’s College Magazine, no. 226, Cambridge 2001, pp. 48-49

4. “Laurence Lockhart: Persian scholar and photographer”, Pembroke College Gazette, no. 75, Cambridge 2001, pp. 25-31

5. “Preface”, in D. Sneath (ed.), Imperial statecraft. Political forms and techniques of governance in Inner Asia, sixth-twentieth centuries, Bellingham, W. Washington 2006, pp. vii-x

6. Obituary of Peter Avery, Iran 47 (2009), pp. v-vi

Book reviews

1. “Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. I”, JRAS (1987)/ii, pp. 342 4

2. “Sa‘di, a Persian humanist”, BSOAS 51/iii (1988), pp. 568 9

3. “Qajar Persia: eleven studies”, JRAS (1988)/ii, p.416

4. “Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. II”, JRAS (1989)/i, pp. 148 9

5. “An introduction to Islam”, Jnl Semitic Stud. 34/i (1989), pp. 222 3

6. “The combined new Persian English and English Persian dictionary”, Bull. BRISMES 16/i (1989), pp. 104 5

7. “The tragedy of Sohrab and Rostam”, BSOAS 53/iii (1990), pp. 524 5

8. “The Great Islamic Encyclopaedia, vol. I”, JRAS (1990)/ii, pp. 383 4 [trans. into Persian in Ayandeh (1992), pp. 872 3]

9. “A history of the Seljuks”, Brit. Jnl M.E. Stud. 18/i (1991), pp. 107 9

10. “The rise and rule of Tamerlane”, BSOAS 54/iii (1991), pp. 604 5

11. “A Persian Requiem”, Brit. Jnl M.E. Stud. 18/ii (1991), pp. 268 9

12. “The sea of precious virtues”, Times Literary Supplement 24 January 1992, p.12

13. “Encyclopaedia Iranica, vols. III and IV”, JRAS 2/i (1992), pp. 83 4

14. “Iranian Jewry during the Afghan invasion”, JRAS 2/ii (1992), pp. 286 8

15. “Epic and sedition: the case of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh”, Times Literary Supplement 15 January 1993, p.12

16. “Islam and the West”, Times Literary Supplement 9 July 1993, p.32

17. “The civilizations of Asia and the Middle East before the European challenge”, Brit. Jnl M.E. Stud. 20/i (1993), pp. 98 100

18. “Persian literature, V/i: poetry to ca. A.D. 1100”, BSOAS 56/iii (1993), pp. 600 1

19. “The Great Islamic Encyclopaedia, vols. 2, 3 and 4”, JRAS 3rd ser. 4/ii (July 1994), pp. 264 6 [Persian trans. pub. in Kelk, 55-6 (1373/1995), pp. 178-82]

20. “The Caliphate in the West”, JRAS 5/i (March 1995), pp. 106 7

21. “Khomeinism” and “Islam and the post revolutionary state in Iran”, Journal of Islamic Studies 6/ii (July 1995), pp. 306 9

22. “Mongols and Mamluks”, T.L.S. 4844 (2 Feb. 1996), p. 12

23. “Twilight of Majesty”, T.L.S. 4869 (26 July 1996), p. 28

24. “Baku Documents”, Turkish Area Studies Group News no. 43 (November 1996), pp. 4 6

25. “Early Mamluk diplomacy”, JRAS 3 ser., 6/iii (November 1996), pp. 425 6

26. “Mongols and Mamluks”, The English Historical Review 112 no. 446 (April 1997), pp. 444 5

27. “Islamization and native religion in the Golden Horde”, JRAS 3rd ser., 7/i (April 1997), pp. 177 80

28. “A journey to Persia”, BSOAS 60/ii (1997), pp. 376-8

29. “The History of the Saffarids of Sistan”, Iranian Studies 30/i-ii (1997), pp. 163-7

30. “Emirs mongols et vizirs persans”, Annales Islamologiques, Bulletin Critique 14 (Cairo 1998), pp. 110-13

31. “The Cambridge History of Egypt”, T.L.S. no. 5061 (31 March 2000), pp. 4-6

32. “Persian historiography”, T.L.S. no. 5072 (16 June 2000), pp. 32-3

33. “Mojmal-i Rashvand”, Abstracta Iranica, 20-21 (1998-9) [2000], pp. 121-2

34. “The chastisement in the Ilkhanid period (in Persian)”, Abstracta Iranica, 20-21 (1998-9) [2000], p. 96

35. “Persian historiography”, J.R.A.S. 10/iii (2000), pp. 397-9

36. “The History of the World Conqueror”, Iranian Studies 32/iii (Summer 1999 [2000]), pp. 435-7

37. “Qaidu”, Bulletin critique des Annales Islamologiques, 16 (2000), pp. 94-5

38. “Handlist of Persian Manuscripts”, Iranian Studies 33/i-ii (Winter-Spring 2000 [2001]), pp. 236-8

39. “Hafiz Abru, Jughrafiya (in Persian)”, Abstracta Iranica 22 (1999) [2001], p. 95

40. “Historical writing during the reign of Shah ‘Abbas”, Iranian Studies 35/i-iii (2002 [2003]), pp. 225-30

41. “The Prophet Muhammad”, T.L.S., no. 5228, 13 June 2003, p. 28

42. “Safavid government institutions”, I.J.M.E.S. 35 (2003), pp. 498-500

43. “Culture and conquest in Mongol Eurasia”, Journal of Islamic Studies 15/i (January 2004), pp. 91-5

44. “Mystics, monarchs and messiahs”, T.L.S., 9 July 2004, p. 23

45. “Early Mongol rule in thirteenth-century Iran”, B.S.O.A.S. 67/ii (2004), pp. 238-40

46. “Visions of Persia”, The Middle East and South Asia Folklore Bulletin 21/ii (2005), p. 11

47. “The Mongols and the West”, Inner Asia 8 (2006), pp. 139-42

48. “Political relations of the Seljuks of Rum with the Ilkhans” (in Persian), Abstracta Iranica 27 (2004), pp. 80-81

49. “Shiraz in the age of Hafiz”, Iranian Studies 39/iv (Dec. 2006), pp. 621-4

50. “The Persians”, The Historian 68/iv (2006), pp. 817-18

51. “Iran. Questions et connaissances”, Studia Iranica, 36/ii (2007), pp. 307-11

52. “Nadir Shah’s quest for legitimacy”, The Historian, 70/i (2008), pp. 97-98

53. “Mongols, Turks & others”, International Journal of Turkish Studies, XIV/1-2 (Fall 2008), pp. 170-74

54. “The Mongols”, The International History Review, XXX/i (2008), pp. 597-9

55. “The Arabian Nights”, Annual Gazette 83 (Pembroke College, Cambridge), pp. 76-78

56. “Shah Abbas. The Ruthless King”, Journal of the Iran Society, vol. 2 no. 8 (Sept. 2009), pp. 68-70

57. “Power, politics and religion in Timurid Iran”, Speculum 85/ii (April 2010), pp. 429-30

58. “Les Iraniens”, Studia Iranica 39/i (2010), pp. 149-52